Draw the pin connection diagram of The pin connection diagram of is shown in Fig. Draw the functional block diagram of The functional block diagram of is shown in Fig. Write down the characteristic features of Indicate the data transfer rate of IOP.

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It was designed by Intel in Intel is built on a single semiconductor chip and packaged in a pin IC package.

Intel uses 20 address lines and 16 data- lines. It consists of a powerful instruction set, which provides operation like division and multiplication very quickly. Difference between and Microprocessor Microprocessor It is an 8-bit microprocessor. It is a bit microprocessor.

It has a bit address line. It has a 8-bit data bus. It has a bit data bus. The memory capacity is 64 KB. The memory capacity is 1 MB. The Clock speed of this microprocessor is 3 MHz. The Clock speed of this microprocessor varies between 5, 8 and 10 MHz for different versions. It has five flags. It does not support pipelining. It supports pipelining. It is accumulator based processor. It is general purpose register based processor. It has no minimum or maximum mode. It has minimum and maximum modes.

In , only one processor is used. In , more than one processor is used. An additional external processor can also be employed. It contains less number of transistors compare to microprocessor. It contains about transistor. It contains more number of transistors compare to microprocessor.

It contains about in size. The cost of is low. The cost of is high. These are low order address bus. They are multiplexed with data. When these lines are used to transmit memory address, the symbol A is used instead of AD, for example, A0- A A16 - A19 Output : High order address lines. These are multiplexed with status signals. During T1, it is low. It enables the data onto the most significant half of data bus, D8-D It is multiplexed with status signal S7.

S7 signal is available during T3 and T4. RD Read : For read operation. It is an output signal. It is active when LOW. When HIGH, it denotes that the peripheral is ready to transfer data. The signal is active HIGH. NMI Input : Non-maskable interrupt request. When LOW the microprocessor continues execution otherwise waits. GND: Ground. Operating Modes of There are two operating modes of operation for Intel , namely the minimum mode and the maximum mode. When only one CPU is to be used in a microprocessor system, the is used in the Minimum mode of operation.

In a multiprocessor system operates in the Maximum mode. The description about the pins from 24 to 31 for the minimum mode is as follows: INTA Output : Pin number 24 interrupts acknowledgement. On receiving interrupt signal, the processor issues an interrupt acknowledgment signal. It is active LOW. ALE Output : Pin no. Address latch enable. DEN Output : Pin no. Data Enable. When it is HIGH, data is sent out. When it is LOW, data is received. WR Output : Pin no. It is sent by the processor when it receives HOLD signal.

It is active HIGH signal. It is an active HIGH signal. It is grounded. Logics are given below: QS1.


Microprocessor - 8086 Overview

Compilers for the family commonly support two types of pointer , near and far. Far pointers are bit segment:offset pairs resolving to bit external addresses. Some compilers also support huge pointers, which are like far pointers except that pointer arithmetic on a huge pointer treats it as a linear bit pointer, while pointer arithmetic on a far pointer wraps around within its bit offset without touching the segment part of the address. To avoid the need to specify near and far on numerous pointers, data structures, and functions, compilers also support "memory models" which specify default pointer sizes. The tiny model means that code and data are shared in a single segment, just as in most 8-bit based processors, and can be used to build.


8086 microprocessor



Intel 8086


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