Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Email: doyeshola oauife. Specifically, on December 26, tsunami swept through Asia. In Indonesia it killed over , people while at least 37, went missing and about , people were made homeless. Sri Lanka lost more than 31, lives while , homes were damaged along with crops and fishing boats and more than , people lost their jobs. It is this dynamic, overwhelming, destructive capacity associated with climate change as manifested in hurricanes, tsunamis, quakes and floods that makes it a special and different security problem.
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By this, the date ad quem, , of his work was made self-explanatory. To Parry, as to many of his predecessors, was the natural point of departure for modern treaties.
The underlying claim is that the treaties inaugurated or even created a new international order based on the sovereign state. It is held that the treaties which put an end to the Thirty Years War — terminated the last great religious war in Europe and sounded the death knell for the universal authority of the pope and the emperor. Thus the princes and republics of Europe achieved their full sovereignty and a new international political and legal order which was premised on the principles of state sovereignty and religious neutrality emerged see, e.
As the modern state system was one in which, absent any supranational authority, states were left to their own devices to organise and regulate their mutual relations, horizontal agreements through treaty played a central role in the articulation of international order and treaties became its primary source.
Over the last two decades, the communis opinio among scholars has fallen under attack. A number of scholars have stated that the new order which Westphalia inaugurated had little to do with that of the sovereign state system, which only emerged in the 19th century.
According to those scholars, the idea of Westphalia is a case of ahistorical myth-making to provide the state system with a clear starting point Osiander ; Teschke But the criticism can even reach further, to the outright negation that Westphalia created anything like a new order at all.
He or she will not find any mention of state sovereignty or religious neutrality as principles of international organisation in the texts, nor in the surrounding diplomatic documents. Neither will he or she find that the Westphalian Peace Treaties were universal peace treaties, to which most of the powers of Europe supposedly acceded; nor will he or she be able to pinpoint a reference to the balance of power, as so many scholars have claimed.
Westphalia is indeed a myth, and one which has particularly little basis in historical reality as far as the Peace of Westphalia is concerned. Much of the confusion comes from the hybrid character of the two peace instruments, which has often been overlooked or misunderstood. The clauses into which later scholars have read references to state sovereignty or religious equality all pertain to the latter dimension of the treaties and hold no reflection on the international order of Europe or the law of nations.
Modern scholars have considered the involvement of the princes and estates of the Empire in an international peace treaty and the explicit confirmation of their right to make treaties to mark the final rejection of the universal authority of the emperor and the recognition of state sovereignty.
In fact, these reminiscences were nothing but the confirmation, or at best adaptation, of old pre-Westphalian rights and went a long way to sustain the medieval, feudal, hierarchical structure that was the Holy Roman Empire. A historical study of treaty practice should thus move beyond Westphalia and look for the origins of modern treaty-making in the Middle Ages and the 16th century Lesaffer ; Benham All this does not suffice to dismiss as insignificant in the long-term history of the political and legal order of Europe.
The midth century certainly was a period of transition between political orders and Westphalia is as good an event to symbolise this as any other. At the same time, they fell within the middle of a period of civil unrest and war in many European countries — , which in the case of some of the major powers ended with the victory of the forces of centralisation over local and regional autonomy.
Westphalia, together with some other events, marked the end of a period of turmoil that had started with the Reformation in the second quarter of the 16th century and which had destroyed the medieval order of Europe.
After more than a century of unrest and instability which had impeded the formation of a new consent about the international order of Europe, Westphalia helped to create the conditions of internal stability which in the following decades allowed for the articulation of a new common order of Europe. No peace embodies this order more than the Peace Treaties of Utrecht [e. This new order thus only materialised after Westphalia rather than at Westphalia.
It was the order of the territorial dynastic state — which Bobbitt referred to as the kingly state — and the public law of Europe, which in turn was to be transformed by the French Revolution into that of the nation-state. Philip Bobbitt, The Shield of Achilles. Randall Lesaffer ed. Benno Teschke, The Myth of
Learn how and when to remove this template message State sovereignty is sometimes viewed synonymously with independence , however, sovereignty can be transferred as a legal right whereas independence cannot. Alternatively, independence can be lost completely when sovereignty itself becomes the subject of dispute. The pre-World War II administrations of Latvia , Lithuania and Estonia maintained an exile existence and considerable international recognition whilst their territories were annexed by the Soviet Union and governed locally by their pro-Soviet functionaries. When in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia re-enacted independence, it was done so on the basis of continuity directly from the pre-Soviet republics. The post Polish state claims direct continuity from the Second Polish Republic which ended in For other reasons however, Poland maintains its communist-era outline as opposed to its pre-World War II shape which included areas now in Belarus , Czech Republic , Lithuania , Slovakia and Ukraine but did not include some of its western regions that were then in Germany. At the opposite end of the scale, there is no dispute regarding the self-governance of certain self-proclaimed states such as the Republic of Kosovo or Somaliland see List of states with limited recognition , but most of them are puppet states since their governments neither answer to a bigger state, nor is their governance subjected to supervision.
By this, the date ad quem, , of his work was made self-explanatory. To Parry, as to many of his predecessors, was the natural point of departure for modern treaties. The underlying claim is that the treaties inaugurated or even created a new international order based on the sovereign state. It is held that the treaties which put an end to the Thirty Years War — terminated the last great religious war in Europe and sounded the death knell for the universal authority of the pope and the emperor.
ANDREAS OSIANDER SOVEREIGNTY INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND THE WESTPHALIAN MYTH PDF
In the Westphalian system, the national interests and goals of states and later nation-states were widely assumed to go beyond those of any citizen or any ruler. States became the primary institutional agents in an interstate system of relations. The Peace of Westphalia is said to have ended attempts to impose supranational authority on European states. The "Westphalian" doctrine of states as independent agents was bolstered by the rise in 19th century thought of nationalism , under which legitimate states were assumed to correspond to nations —groups of people united by language and culture. The Westphalian system reached its peak in the late 19th century.
Publication, announced repeatedly to be just around the corner, keeps being delayed, for somewhat unfathomable reasons. Pending that happy event, I have decided to make the text available here. The Peace of Westphalia is still widely regarded as a turning point in political history. The Thirty Years War, which the peace brought to an end, is commonly interpreted as an attempt by some actors in the European system — variously identified as the German emperor, the Habsburg dynasty to which he belonged, or even the papacy — to assert their ascendancy and quash the aspirations and autonomy of the rising national states. The latter are exemplifed, in this view, by France, Sweden, the northern Netherlands, or Switzerland, opponents of Habsburg ambition over which, at the peace, they triumphed. Consequently, it is held, they were able to turn the peace into a charter for a new European system.