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As already emphasized in the previous unit, the use of speech level endings is mandatory all the time, since verb or adjective stems cannot stand alone. As the most commonly used speech level regardless of age or gender, the polite speech level is broadly used in any situation where polite language is called for.
It is used when addressing someone of senior status in a casual, non-formal, and everyday types of conversations; it is used with friends if their friendship began in adulthood; it is the most common speech level used toward strangers.
This is attributed to the vowel contraction in Korean: when similar or the same two vowels appear together e. Mixed use of the deferential and polite speech levels Koreans frequently use the deferential speech level as well as the polite speech level together even in formal conversational settings. One possible scenario is when you meet a person for the first time. The speakers may introduce themselves using the deferential speech level using the aforementioned fixed expressions.
However, once identified, they may switch to the polite speech level. The use of the polite speech level ending generates an effect of making a dialogue sound less formal, even in formal conversational contexts. There is no corresponding equivalent in English. Korean has two types of particles: case particles and special particles. Case particles indicate the syntactic role of the noun to which they are attached e. Characteristics of particles There are few things to remember when using these particles.
First, although particles are tightly bound to and are an integral part of the noun, they can be often omitted in colloquial usages. However, the omission of the particles is not allowed in formal written communication. For instance, notice that the following two sentences have the same meaning, even if the word order of both sentences e.
For example, in negation the noun it marks is not the subject of the sentence. Double subject constructions Some Korean sentences may have two nouns marked by the subject particle.
However, its interpretation is not that the sentence has two subjects. In this sentence, the focus is on the number three rather than friends. It is rather confusing which noun marked by the particle should be regarded as the emphasized subject. Koreans use context as well as other linguistic cues e. The importance of contextual understanding is also evident in the fact that Korean subjects as well as particles are often omitted in conversation.
Fill in the blank with an appropriate subject particle, and translate the sentence. Then, translate the sentence. Exercise 6. Such a topiccomment structure is the most basic sentence type in Korean. Because of the fact that Leah was noted as the topic in the first sentence, it would be redundant to raise Leah as the topic again. Since these sentences are used in parallel, these two topics are compared and contrasted e.
For instance, consider the following conversation. Interplay between the subject and the topic particles When asking a question in Korean, the question word e. This may sound confusing but, it should become clear with more examples. The less important or least unknown information tend to appear toward the beginning of the sentence.
The topic of the sentence in Korean tends to be the contextually understood element, and thus it can be often easily omitted during conversation.