INTRODUCTION TO ERGONOMICS BY RS BRIDGER PDF

With new sections in every chapter, the third edition of Introduction to Ergonomics describes a representative selection of tools and demonstrates how to apply them in practice. In fully researched, stand alone sections with worked examples, the book provides useful, The past decade has seen the development and testing of an increasingly large set of ergonomics tools. In fully researched, stand alone sections with worked examples, the book provides useful, practical skills for dealing with real-world ergonomic problems. This approach is in accordance with International Ergonomics Association guidelines. Reading the main text supplies a general overview of ergonomics in action.

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In urban areas double-income nuclear families are becoming norm with considerable dispensable income flowing towards modern day furniture. As both male and female members are working it is hard to spend adequate time on elaborate cooking process. To save time and boot efficiency Indian kitchens are becoming organized and modern in outlook.

Today, a wide range of food processing and cooking appliances are being brought by consumers who want to save on cooking time. Technology is changing the way we buy food, cook, and eat. Growth of service sector has created a large pool of skilled professionals in areas like IT, ITES, financial and other high growth areas.

The current demography segment is highly migratory in lifestyle. This segment consists of educated, computer savvy professional users who are moving on a wave of economic growth. The users are cosmopolitan in outlook, aware of trends and have growing disposable incomes. Users in age group of 20 — 35 migrate across cities in search of better education and job opportunities. The author tries to address the above needs by proposing not just a product but a product category.

A novel concept is developed and taken to physical prototyping level. The product may also find applications amongst other areas and segments. Also studied was the impact of information and communication devices, technology inside cooking environment. Analysis and observations from survey led to drafting the design brief and specifications for guiding further creative exploration.

A number of concepts were generated during the process. Existing products in market were benchmarked for design. The final concept was chosen and detailed. A scaled prototype was developed and demonstrated in a design exhibition for review.

Final iterations in design were carried before detailing final prototype. The thesis prototype aims at meeting primary and secondary goals. Primary goals were developing a mobile unit serving basic cooking activities with organized storage, a concept that offered flexibility in layout, elegance in design while being economical to user.

Secondary goals were exploration of concept of smart kitchen and partial demonstration. Each kitchen is fine tuned towards meeting the needs of the local food preparation. A vast section of population is vegetarian. Cooking style depends on regional food type, community taste preference, weather, geography etc. Most of the Indian foods require elaborate pre processing.

The food is spicy and concentration is on making food tastier and spicy. With modern food processing appliances in hand the task has become simpler for most of the urban ladies in kitchen. The Indian kitchens are reshaping today as cosmopolitan population embraces a modern consumption fueled lifestyle. The type of food that is consumed has also changed. Since urban life faces time crunch there is emphasis on food that can be cooked faster and needs least processing time.

In the past it was usual to see a wife serving food to family members inside the kitchen. The Dining space co exited inside kitchen space. A housewife would usually serve breakfast to husband before he left for work. Men and women rarely ate together in traditional households of India. Over the years with rise in standard of Indian living , has witnessed changing social habits and behaviors.

Today the family eats on a dining table instead of floor. For Couples working in ITES or call centers with conflicting work times most of the couples end up preparing and eating food alone.

Today small urban families with both husband and wife working prefer not to waste much time on cooking and reserve maximum daily time for personal entertainment. Availability of pre processed packed food is becoming acceptable into daily diet in a time-crunched urban life.

Children also prefer to eat fast food for breakfast or lunch, influenced by the media. Daily cooking can be a mundane daily activity for individuals. Hence a majority of them prefer to watch TV ,sms or use phone while cooking to get over the mundane.

It was observed that some users had also changed the orientation of TV for better visibility from kitchens. Individual or family dining time today is unimaginable for some without entertainment through TV, Radio or music. A modern kitchen is typically equipped with a gas fired stove or microwave oven for cooking. Refrigerator for food preservation and storage. Sink with water supply and draining for cleaning purpose of raw food and dishwashing. Organized storage in form of cupboards for food, utensils and any other aid resourceful during cooking.

Although the main function of a kitchen is cooking, it can be the center of other activities as well, especially within homes, depending on its size, furnishing, and equipment.

If a washing machine is present, washing and drying laundry is also done in the kitchen. The kitchen may also be the place where the family eats, provided it is large enough. Sometimes, it is the most comforting room in a house, where family and visitors tend to congregate. Plate 1. A survey in local market in Kanpur found modular kitchens were in demand across all segments.

However a majority of kitchen manufacturers only cater to a very niche segment. Complete kitchen furniture available at starting average price of Rs and available till Rs 2. Before moving ahead with defining new line of products it was necessary to understand the market as a whole. The following facts and figures are to give an overview of the furniture business in India. The case studies here have strongly reflected the need to push furniture design centered to address Indian needs to cope up with the surging demands.

In the area of decorative residential furniture, India has a heritage of exquisite handcrafted furniture, made out of teak, rosewood and walnut wood, which has strong colonial roots.

The range of indigenous furniture available in India includes both residential and contract system furniture, with an increased concentration these days in office and kitchen furniture. Globalization has seen imported furniture make serious inroads into the Indian markets. This has been awake up call for the manufacturing industry. In furniture imports India ranked first from to importing 17 per cent of the total imports in furniture worldwide.

Within this, the Wooden furniture accounts for Rs 60, million. The furniture sector in India only makes a marginal contribution to the GDP, representing about 0. The growth of real estate and commercial properties is based on the overall growth of economy.

The economy of the country since past few years has been bullish and will continue to be the same in the coming years. There has been the roundabout growth in all the sectors, be it manufacturing or service. Other important factor to be taken into account is the rising disposable incomes and increased consumer spending in India; which is again shaping the property markets in India. Growing urbanization is a key trend in the country, with rural population growth averaging to Key statistics with regard to population growth and the urban and rural split are set out below.

This is largely as a result of increased employment opportunities in cities as well as a preference among the younger generation to move away from agriculture.

Fig 1. Youth are generally early adopters of most modern products and concepts. The per capita income has been witnessing steady growth in the last few years. This trend is likely to continue in the near future as the economy continues to grow. The number of households in these categories combined is expected to grow by The lower income categories are projected to decline by Retailers will now focus on the consumption patterns of the middle class to map their future strategies, as this upward push will lead to greatly increased purchasing power.

The trend in aggregate consumer spending also corroborates the consumption boom in the economy. The rate of growth of spending on discretionary items unlike basic necessities like food has been growing at an average of 9 per cent per year over the past five years. Significantly, the rate of growth has been recording a sharp spurt during the past two years.

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