Shajin Seal sd Place and Date 4. Repairs and overhaul activities 3. Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. The reporting officer checks whether the result areas set where met by the appraisal or if there any deviation from it. After the receipt of the material internal note from the department the issues are made and same is recorded in the Bin card. Apart from pegmatites, the granitic occurrences of Nb-Ta minerals near Kanigiri, Prakasamdistrict, Andhra Pradesh was also located and evaluated.
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I am grateful to Prof. I am indepted to MR. I am required to undertake an internship study in an organization in third semester.
Internship training enables me to know the realities of the business and application if theoretical knowledge in practical environment. In fact the purpose of this training is to create to managers with greater adaptability and who can provide creative solution to the organization they work in so it helps the student to become a complete manager for the industry and efficient.
This internship report is an effort of mine for the fulfillment of the same. Organizational studies allow us to understand the function of the organization and get insights to various department processes. The report is a summary of the internship which I had undergone in the set company for a period of 4 to 5 weeks.
Scandium and yttrium are considered rare earth elements because they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and exhibit similar chemical properties. Scandium and yttrium are considered rare earths since they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanoids and exhibit similar chemical properties. The term "rare earth" arises from the minerals from which they were first isolated which uncommon oxide-type minerals earths were found in Gadolinite extracted from one mine in the village of Ytterby Sweden.
They are the elements that have become irreplaceable to our world of technology owing to their unique magnetic phosphorescent and catalytic properties. What is unusual is to find them in quantities significant enough to support economic mineral development. Fig No. While the amount of rare earths in each phone is very small the quantity of phones sold each year is impressive. According to Apple in over million iPhones were sold worldwide up from 72 million in Rare earth ions are used as the active ions in luminescent materials used in optioelectronics applications most notably the Nd-YAG laser.
Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are significant devices in optical-fiber communication systems. Phosphorus with rare slide Page 10 earth dopants are also widely used in cathode ray tube technology such as television sets. The earliest color television CRTs had a poor-quality red europium as a phosphor dopant made good red phosphors possible. Yttrium iron garnet YIG spheres have been useful as tunable microwave resonators.
Rare earth oxides are mixed with Tungsten to improve its high temperature properties for welding replacing thorium which was mildly hazardous to work with. Many of these are essential ingredients in mobile phones video game machines computers and even green technologies.
Tiny amounts of rare earths dysprosium or terbium might soon be used in electric cars as these let batteries work at high temperatures.
A few sites are under development outside of China the most significant of which are the Nolans Project in Central Australia the remote Hoidas lake project in northern Canada and the Mt. Weld project in Australia. The Hoidas Lake project has the potential to supply about 10 of the 1 billion of REE consumption that occurs in North America every year. USE IN INDUSTRY Rare earth elements are used in many modern technological devices including superconductors samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron high-flux rare-earth magnets electronic polishers refining catalysts and hybrid car components.
Phosphorus with rare earth dopants are also widely used in cathode ray tube technology such as television sets. The rare elements with atomic numbers 57 through In the early years these elements were considered as rare elements and so they are called as rare earth metals. Later many elements in this group were found splendid but their name remained unchanged. The primary source of rare earth elements is greenish yellow colored mineral sand which is Monazite.
Its availability in nature is confined to certain beaches and rock found in certain countries. The beaches containing the Monazite are found mixed with other minerals too. Most of these are ores for valuable metals. An ore is a mineral form which metal can be separated economically. These ores are Ilmenite Rutile and Zircon. Ilmenite and Rutile forms the ore for Titanium Zircon for Zirconium. Even though Aluminum bearing metal Garnet and Sillimanite are also found along with these beach sand minerals.
But they are not commercially exploited for Aluminum production due to economic reasons. However Garnet and Sillimanite in their natural form are commercially significant. Ilmenite which is black in color Jconstitutes a major chuck of these minerals 60 presence of these minerals makes the beaches appear black.
These minerals are commercially known as beach sand minerals or heavy minerals. The origin of beach sand is from rocks which are rich with heavy minerals. This sand particle reaches sea through rivers. The sea level is not remaining constant. It is regarded that the sea level. It is now really meters above what we had seen years ago. This white sand seen at the beach area contains the main constitute as Quartz.
This is lighter than black sand. As a result of movement of the sea this sand will erode away and black sand get deposited. The black sand thus deposited years ago is mined and processed. In the year Fr. William George discovered Ilmenite at knower in England and stated that this black sand contains some important metal.
But he failed to discover which metal it was. After several time in the year the Hungarian scientist Martin Heen Witch Klapporth found the same metal contains in the Rutile minerals about which Fr.
William George mentioned. Monazite was mainly used in the gas mantle industry. After the advent of electricity its demand decreased in the gas mantle industry. Ilmenite and Rutile are used in high temperature refactory industry ceramics industry etc. Zircon is used in foundries ceramics and refectories and in the manufacturing of Zirconium chemicals metals and alloys. Zirflour is used in foundries for high temperature castings.
Garnet is used in the manufacturing of abrasive polishing glass TV tubes for sand blasting and for water filtration. The beach sand mining and processing industry has vast future because of their demand in nuclear industry too. In the present scenario of booming economics like India and china there is a huge demand for the beach sand minerals Ilmenite in particular.
The current world production capacity of Ilmenite and other Titanium feed stocks for production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment Titanium metal Welding electrodes etc.
Approximately half of this from beach sands and the balance from Ilmenite rocks mostly found in Canada and Norway. In view of the limited supply of natural Rutile its share of consumption in pigment production is rather small and 55 of its total availability of about 5 lakhs TPA is used in the non-pigment applications predominantly in the production of welding rods and Titanium metal.
The present production capacity of pigment in the world is just above 4 lakhs TPA. North America is the largest producer with 37 of the global capacity. Europe with 32 capacity is the second largest producer and Asia-Pacific region with 21 capacity is the third.
The balance 10 slide Page 14 distributed among the rest of the world. India has the largest resources base of million tones for Ilmenite.
This is the single largest and Ilmenite and least exploited mineral deposit in the world. It is also the raw material for the manufacture of titanium alloys which is used in the aerospace and chemical industries by virtue of its light weight toughness heat and chemical resistance. Also used for the production of Synthetic Rutile. Also used as raw material for the manufacture of Zirconium Oxide its compounds metal alloys of zirconium which find application in many chemical electronic and nuclear industries.
Monazite: Extraction of thorium concentrate and Rare earth Compounds used in various chemical and electronic industries. Used for the manufacture of thorium nitrate used slide Page 15 in gas mantles. It is also a source for thorium and uranium in nuclear reactor. Presently there are few private organizations engaged in the mining and mineral separation of beach sand minerals. It is operating three mining and mineral processing units viz.
It is also operating a chemical plant rare earth division at Udyogamandal kerala for processing monazite and producing rare earths compounds with several diversification plans in progress including modernization of existing plant and machinery the company is poised for further growth from its current level of sales turnover of approx Rs. Apart from meeting the domestic demand IREL alters to the international markets viz.
Besides providing raw materials to the basic industries and the core sector of the country IREL also plays a strategic and unique role in the strategic atomic energy program of the country. It is the only producer of the monazite mineral containing thorium and uranium. Uranium is being extracted at the R. E Division of IREL and is used in the nuclear reactors as fuel while thorium is considered as the fuel for the future nuclear energy program of the country.
The zircon mineral being produce by IREL is the raw material for the manufacture of zircaloy tubes used for filling uranium fuel in the nuclear reactors. Since incorporation of the company at Mumbai in the company has growing steadily during the post 50 years and the sales turnover reached all-time highly of race Million.
The IREL has own bear eloquent testimony to its consistent export performance over the decades. IREL has built up a corporation image in the world market as a reliable supplier of beach minerals and rare earths compound. The ISO certification received by all four operating units of IREL bears further testimony to commitment of the company for equality and customer satisfaction.
The production plants of IREL have adapted highest level of safety standards along with environmental friendly technique to exploit the obediently available minerals from the beaches of eastern and western part of Indian peninsula.
Established as Rare Earths Company beach sand minerals business continued to be the main stay of IREL and is expected to remain so in the current changing environment of liberalization which has promoted global participation and entry private entrepreneurs into the field of beach sand minerals. Production at MK and refurbishing of Chavara Plant commence. Mineral Division formed comprising Chavara MK. Capacity of MK plant is expanded.
IREL CHAVARA ORGANISATION STUDY PDF
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The movements must be accordingly done so that optimum results can be obtained with less effort. The sand in slurry form is pumped out to the up gradation unit which is mounted on a pontoon. Used for the manufacture of thorium nitrate used. The beach sand mining and processing industry has vast future because of their demand in nuclear industry too.
Mainly used in the manufacture of Titanium Dioxide a white pigment which is used in paints paper rubber textile etc. Electrostatic and magnetic separators isodynamic magnetic separators for mineral beneficiation studies. These ores are Ilmenite Rutile and Zircon. Promotion looks at many ways marketing agencies disseminate relevant product information to the customers and differentiate a particular product or service. The primary source of rare earth elements is greenish yellow colored mineral sand which is Monazite. It has also encouraged further exploration and spurring more recycling of Rare Earths.